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Medieval to 16th century | 17th - 19th century | Garden Restoration | The Nonsuch Restoration Project

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A Fifteenth-Century List of Herbs


This list has been transcribed using the medieval names for the herbs - if the modern equivalent is known it has been added in parentheses.

Herbs for potage:

Borage, langdebefe (buglos), myntes, sauge, parcely, goldes (corn-marigold), mageroum (marjoram), ffenelle, carawey, red nettyle, oculus Christi (Clary), daysys, chervelle, lekez, colewortes, rapez, tyme, cyves, betes, alysaundre, letyse, betayne, columbyne, allia, astralogya rotunda, astralogia longra, basillicam (basil), dylle, deteyne, hertestong, radiche, white pyper, cabagez, sedewale, spynache, coliaundre, ffothistylle (sowthistle), orage, cartabus, lympens, nepte, clarey, pacience.

Herbs for sauce:

Hertestonge, sorelle, pelytory, pelytory of spayne, deteyne, vyolettes, parcely, myntes.

Herbs for the coppe (possibly for the cup - herbal teas):

Cost, costmary, sauge, isope, rose mary, gyllofre, goldez, clarey, margeroun, rue.

Herbs for a salad:

Buddus of stanmarche (Alexander), vyollette flourez, parcely, red myntes, syves (Cives), cresse of Boleyne, purselane, ramsons, calamyntes, primerose buddus, dayses, rapounses, daundelyoun, rokette, red nettelle, borage flourez, croppus of red ffenelle, selbes-tryve, chykynwede.

Herbs to distil:

Endyve, rede rose, rose mary, dragans (serpentine), skabiose, ewfrace (Eyebright), wermode, mogwede, beteyne, wylde tansey, sauge, isope, ersemart.

Herbs for flavour and beauty:

Gyllofre gentyle, mageroum gentyle, brasyle, palma Christi, stycadose, meloncez, arcachaffe, scalacely (Solomon's Seal), philyppendula (dropwort), popy royalle, germaundre, cowsloppus of Jerusalem, verveyne, dylle, seynt Mark, garlek.

Roots for a garden:

Parsenpez, turnepes, radyche, karettes, galyngale, eryngez (Erinigoes), safrone.

For a herbery:

Vynes, rosers, lyles, thewberries (possibly gooseberries), almondez, bay-trees, gourdes, date-trese, peche-trese, pyneappule, pyany romain, rose campy, cartabus, seliane, columbyne, gentyle, elabre.

Please also visit Old London Maps on the web as many of the maps
and views available there have plans and depictions of gardens from
the medieval period through to the late nineteenth century.

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